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recur.c

/* Handling of recursive HTTP retrieving.
   Copyright (C) 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2001 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

This file is part of GNU Wget.

GNU Wget is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
 (at your option) any later version.

GNU Wget is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with Wget; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

In addition, as a special exception, the Free Software Foundation
gives permission to link the code of its release of Wget with the
OpenSSL project's "OpenSSL" library (or with modified versions of it
that use the same license as the "OpenSSL" library), and distribute
the linked executables.  You must obey the GNU General Public License
in all respects for all of the code used other than "OpenSSL".  If you
modify this file, you may extend this exception to your version of the
file, but you are not obligated to do so.  If you do not wish to do
so, delete this exception statement from your version.  */

#include <config.h>

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#ifdef HAVE_STRING_H
# include <string.h>
#else
# include <strings.h>
#endif /* HAVE_STRING_H */
#ifdef HAVE_UNISTD_H
# include <unistd.h>
#endif /* HAVE_UNISTD_H */
#include <errno.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <sys/types.h>

#include "wget.h"
#include "url.h"
#include "recur.h"
#include "utils.h"
#include "retr.h"
#include "ftp.h"
#include "host.h"
#include "hash.h"
#include "res.h"
#include "convert.h"

#ifndef errno
extern int errno;
#endif

extern char *version_string;
extern SUM_SIZE_INT total_downloaded_bytes;

extern struct hash_table *dl_url_file_map;
extern struct hash_table *downloaded_html_set;

/* Functions for maintaining the URL queue.  */

struct queue_element {
  const char *url;            /* the URL to download */
  const char *referer;        /* the referring document */
  int depth;                  /* the depth */
  unsigned int html_allowed :1;     /* whether the document is allowed to
                           be treated as HTML. */

  struct queue_element *next; /* next element in queue */
};

struct url_queue {
  struct queue_element *head;
  struct queue_element *tail;
  int count, maxcount;
};

/* Create a URL queue. */

static struct url_queue *
url_queue_new (void)
{
  struct url_queue *queue = xnew0 (struct url_queue);
  return queue;
}

/* Delete a URL queue. */

static void
url_queue_delete (struct url_queue *queue)
{
  xfree (queue);
}

/* Enqueue a URL in the queue.  The queue is FIFO: the items will be
   retrieved ("dequeued") from the queue in the order they were placed
   into it.  */

static void
url_enqueue (struct url_queue *queue,
           const char *url, const char *referer, int depth, int html_allowed)
{
  struct queue_element *qel = xnew (struct queue_element);
  qel->url = url;
  qel->referer = referer;
  qel->depth = depth;
  qel->html_allowed = html_allowed;
  qel->next = NULL;

  ++queue->count;
  if (queue->count > queue->maxcount)
    queue->maxcount = queue->count;

  DEBUGP (("Enqueuing %s at depth %d\n", url, depth));
  DEBUGP (("Queue count %d, maxcount %d.\n", queue->count, queue->maxcount));

  if (queue->tail)
    queue->tail->next = qel;
  queue->tail = qel;

  if (!queue->head)
    queue->head = queue->tail;
}

/* Take a URL out of the queue.  Return 1 if this operation succeeded,
   or 0 if the queue is empty.  */

static int
url_dequeue (struct url_queue *queue,
           const char **url, const char **referer, int *depth,
           int *html_allowed)
{
  struct queue_element *qel = queue->head;

  if (!qel)
    return 0;

  queue->head = queue->head->next;
  if (!queue->head)
    queue->tail = NULL;

  *url = qel->url;
  *referer = qel->referer;
  *depth = qel->depth;
  *html_allowed = qel->html_allowed;

  --queue->count;

  DEBUGP (("Dequeuing %s at depth %d\n", qel->url, qel->depth));
  DEBUGP (("Queue count %d, maxcount %d.\n", queue->count, queue->maxcount));

  xfree (qel);
  return 1;
}

static int download_child_p PARAMS ((const struct urlpos *, struct url *, int,
                             struct url *, struct hash_table *));
static int descend_redirect_p PARAMS ((const char *, const char *, int,
                               struct url *, struct hash_table *));


/* Retrieve a part of the web beginning with START_URL.  This used to
   be called "recursive retrieval", because the old function was
   recursive and implemented depth-first search.  retrieve_tree on the
   other hand implements breadth-search traversal of the tree, which
   results in much nicer ordering of downloads.

   The algorithm this function uses is simple:

   1. put START_URL in the queue.
   2. while there are URLs in the queue:

     3. get next URL from the queue.
     4. download it.
     5. if the URL is HTML and its depth does not exceed maximum depth,
        get the list of URLs embedded therein.
     6. for each of those URLs do the following:

       7. if the URL is not one of those downloaded before, and if it
          satisfies the criteria specified by the various command-line
        options, add it to the queue. */

uerr_t
retrieve_tree (const char *start_url)
{
  uerr_t status = RETROK;

  /* The queue of URLs we need to load. */
  struct url_queue *queue;

  /* The URLs we do not wish to enqueue, because they are already in
     the queue, but haven't been downloaded yet.  */
  struct hash_table *blacklist;

  int up_error_code;
  struct url *start_url_parsed = url_parse (start_url, &up_error_code);

  if (!start_url_parsed)
    {
      logprintf (LOG_NOTQUIET, "%s: %s.\n", start_url,
             url_error (up_error_code));
      return URLERROR;
    }

  queue = url_queue_new ();
  blacklist = make_string_hash_table (0);

  /* Enqueue the starting URL.  Use start_url_parsed->url rather than
     just URL so we enqueue the canonical form of the URL.  */
  url_enqueue (queue, xstrdup (start_url_parsed->url), NULL, 0, 1);
  string_set_add (blacklist, start_url_parsed->url);

  while (1)
    {
      int descend = 0;
      char *url, *referer, *file = NULL;
      int depth, html_allowed;
      int dash_p_leaf_HTML = 0;

      if (opt.quota && total_downloaded_bytes > opt.quota)
      break;
      if (status == FWRITEERR)
      break;

      /* Get the next URL from the queue... */

      if (!url_dequeue (queue,
                  (const char **)&url, (const char **)&referer,
                  &depth, &html_allowed))
      break;

      /* ...and download it.  Note that this download is in most cases
       unconditional, as download_child_p already makes sure a file
       doesn't get enqueued twice -- and yet this check is here, and
       not in download_child_p.  This is so that if you run `wget -r
       URL1 URL2', and a random URL is encountered once under URL1
       and again under URL2, but at a different (possibly smaller)
       depth, we want the URL's children to be taken into account
       the second time.  */
      if (dl_url_file_map && hash_table_contains (dl_url_file_map, url))
      {
        file = xstrdup (hash_table_get (dl_url_file_map, url));

        DEBUGP (("Already downloaded \"%s\", reusing it from \"%s\".\n",
               url, file));

        if (html_allowed
            && downloaded_html_set
            && string_set_contains (downloaded_html_set, file))
          descend = 1;
      }
      else
      {
        int dt = 0;
        char *redirected = NULL;
        int oldrec = opt.recursive;

        opt.recursive = 0;
        status = retrieve_url (url, &file, &redirected, referer, &dt);
        opt.recursive = oldrec;

        if (html_allowed && file && status == RETROK
            && (dt & RETROKF) && (dt & TEXTHTML))
          descend = 1;

        if (redirected)
          {
            /* We have been redirected, possibly to another host, or
             different path, or wherever.  Check whether we really
             want to follow it.  */
            if (descend)
            {
              if (!descend_redirect_p (redirected, url, depth,
                                 start_url_parsed, blacklist))
                descend = 0;
              else
                /* Make sure that the old pre-redirect form gets
                   blacklisted. */
                string_set_add (blacklist, url);
            }

            xfree (url);
            url = redirected;
          }
      }

      if (descend
        && depth >= opt.reclevel && opt.reclevel != INFINITE_RECURSION)
      {
        if (opt.page_requisites
            && (depth == opt.reclevel || depth == opt.reclevel + 1))
          {
            /* When -p is specified, we are allowed to exceed the
             maximum depth, but only for the "inline" links,
             i.e. those that are needed to display the page.
             Originally this could exceed the depth at most by
             one, but we allow one more level so that the leaf
             pages that contain frames can be loaded
             correctly.  */
            dash_p_leaf_HTML = 1;
          }
        else
          {
            /* Either -p wasn't specified or it was and we've
             already spent the two extra (pseudo-)levels that it
             affords us, so we need to bail out. */
            DEBUGP (("Not descending further; at depth %d, max. %d.\n",
                   depth, opt.reclevel));
            descend = 0;
          }
      }

      /* If the downloaded document was HTML, parse it and enqueue the
       links it contains. */

      if (descend)
      {
        int meta_disallow_follow = 0;
        struct urlpos *children
          = get_urls_html (file, url, &meta_disallow_follow);

        if (opt.use_robots && meta_disallow_follow)
          {
            free_urlpos (children);
            children = NULL;
          }

        if (children)
          {
            struct urlpos *child = children;
            struct url *url_parsed = url_parsed = url_parse (url, NULL);
            assert (url_parsed != NULL);

            for (; child; child = child->next)
            {
              if (child->ignore_when_downloading)
                continue;
              if (dash_p_leaf_HTML && !child->link_inline_p)
                continue;
              if (download_child_p (child, url_parsed, depth, start_url_parsed,
                              blacklist))
                {
                  url_enqueue (queue, xstrdup (child->url->url),
                           xstrdup (url), depth + 1,
                           child->link_expect_html);
                  /* We blacklist the URL we have enqueued, because we
                   don't want to enqueue (and hence download) the
                   same URL twice.  */
                  string_set_add (blacklist, child->url->url);
                }
            }

            url_free (url_parsed);
            free_urlpos (children);
          }
      }

      if (opt.delete_after || (file && !acceptable (file)))
      {
        /* Either --delete-after was specified, or we loaded this
           otherwise rejected (e.g. by -R) HTML file just so we
           could harvest its hyperlinks -- in either case, delete
           the local file. */
        DEBUGP (("Removing file due to %s in recursive_retrieve():\n",
               opt.delete_after ? "--delete-after" :
               "recursive rejection criteria"));
        logprintf (LOG_VERBOSE,
                 (opt.delete_after
                  ? _("Removing %s.\n")
                  : _("Removing %s since it should be rejected.\n")),
                 file);
        if (unlink (file))
          logprintf (LOG_NOTQUIET, "unlink: %s\n", strerror (errno));
        register_delete_file (file);
      }

      xfree (url);
      xfree_null (referer);
      xfree_null (file);
    }

  /* If anything is left of the queue due to a premature exit, free it
     now.  */
  {
    char *d1, *d2;
    int d3, d4;
    while (url_dequeue (queue,
                  (const char **)&d1, (const char **)&d2, &d3, &d4))
      {
      xfree (d1);
      xfree_null (d2);
      }
  }
  url_queue_delete (queue);

  if (start_url_parsed)
    url_free (start_url_parsed);
  string_set_free (blacklist);

  if (opt.quota && total_downloaded_bytes > opt.quota)
    return QUOTEXC;
  else if (status == FWRITEERR)
    return FWRITEERR;
  else
    return RETROK;
}

/* Based on the context provided by retrieve_tree, decide whether a
   URL is to be descended to.  This is only ever called from
   retrieve_tree, but is in a separate function for clarity.

   The most expensive checks (such as those for robots) are memoized
   by storing these URLs to BLACKLIST.  This may or may not help.  It
   will help if those URLs are encountered many times.  */

static int
download_child_p (const struct urlpos *upos, struct url *parent, int depth,
              struct url *start_url_parsed, struct hash_table *blacklist)
{
  struct url *u = upos->url;
  const char *url = u->url;
  int u_scheme_like_http;

  DEBUGP (("Deciding whether to enqueue \"%s\".\n", url));

  if (string_set_contains (blacklist, url))
    {
      DEBUGP (("Already on the black list.\n"));
      goto out;
    }

  /* Several things to check for:
     1. if scheme is not http, and we don't load it
     2. check for relative links (if relative_only is set)
     3. check for domain
     4. check for no-parent
     5. check for excludes && includes
     6. check for suffix
     7. check for same host (if spanhost is unset), with possible
     gethostbyname baggage
     8. check for robots.txt

     Addendum: If the URL is FTP, and it is to be loaded, only the
     domain and suffix settings are "stronger".

     Note that .html files will get loaded regardless of suffix rules
     (but that is remedied later with unlink) unless the depth equals
     the maximum depth.

     More time- and memory- consuming tests should be put later on
     the list.  */

  /* Determine whether URL under consideration has a HTTP-like scheme. */
  u_scheme_like_http = schemes_are_similar_p (u->scheme, SCHEME_HTTP);

  /* 1. Schemes other than HTTP are normally not recursed into. */
  if (!u_scheme_like_http && !(u->scheme == SCHEME_FTP && opt.follow_ftp))
    {
      DEBUGP (("Not following non-HTTP schemes.\n"));
      goto out;
    }

  /* 2. If it is an absolute link and they are not followed, throw it
     out.  */
  if (u_scheme_like_http)
    if (opt.relative_only && !upos->link_relative_p)
      {
      DEBUGP (("It doesn't really look like a relative link.\n"));
      goto out;
      }

  /* 3. If its domain is not to be accepted/looked-up, chuck it
     out.  */
  if (!accept_domain (u))
    {
      DEBUGP (("The domain was not accepted.\n"));
      goto out;
    }

  /* 4. Check for parent directory.

     If we descended to a different host or changed the scheme, ignore
     opt.no_parent.  Also ignore it for documents needed to display
     the parent page when in -p mode.  */
  if (opt.no_parent
      && schemes_are_similar_p (u->scheme, start_url_parsed->scheme)
      && 0 == strcasecmp (u->host, start_url_parsed->host)
      && u->port == start_url_parsed->port
      && !(opt.page_requisites && upos->link_inline_p))
    {
      if (!frontcmp (start_url_parsed->dir, u->dir))
      {
        DEBUGP (("Going to \"%s\" would escape \"%s\" with no_parent on.\n",
               u->dir, start_url_parsed->dir));
        goto out;
      }
    }

  /* 5. If the file does not match the acceptance list, or is on the
     rejection list, chuck it out.  The same goes for the directory
     exclusion and inclusion lists.  */
  if (opt.includes || opt.excludes)
    {
      if (!accdir (u->dir, ALLABS))
      {
        DEBUGP (("%s (%s) is excluded/not-included.\n", url, u->dir));
        goto out;
      }
    }

  /* 6. Check for acceptance/rejection rules.  We ignore these rules
     for directories (no file name to match) and for non-leaf HTMLs,
     which can lead to other files that do need to be downloaded.  (-p
     automatically implies non-leaf because with -p we can, if
     necesary, overstep the maximum depth to get the page requisites.)  */
  if (u->file[0] != '\0'
      && !(has_html_suffix_p (u->file)
         /* The exception only applies to non-leaf HTMLs (but -p
            always implies non-leaf because we can overstep the
            maximum depth to get the requisites): */
         && (/* non-leaf */
             opt.reclevel == INFINITE_RECURSION
             /* also non-leaf */
             || depth < opt.reclevel - 1
             /* -p, which implies non-leaf (see above) */
             || opt.page_requisites)))
    {
      if (!acceptable (u->file))
      {
        DEBUGP (("%s (%s) does not match acc/rej rules.\n",
               url, u->file));
        goto out;
      }
    }

  /* 7. */
  if (schemes_are_similar_p (u->scheme, parent->scheme))
    if (!opt.spanhost && 0 != strcasecmp (parent->host, u->host))
      {
      DEBUGP (("This is not the same hostname as the parent's (%s and %s).\n",
             u->host, parent->host));
      goto out;
      }

  /* 8. */
  if (opt.use_robots && u_scheme_like_http)
    {
      struct robot_specs *specs = res_get_specs (u->host, u->port);
      if (!specs)
      {
        char *rfile;
        if (res_retrieve_file (url, &rfile))
          {
            specs = res_parse_from_file (rfile);
            xfree (rfile);
          }
        else
          {
            /* If we cannot get real specs, at least produce
             dummy ones so that we can register them and stop
             trying to retrieve them.  */
            specs = res_parse ("", 0);
          }
        res_register_specs (u->host, u->port, specs);
      }

      /* Now that we have (or don't have) robots.txt specs, we can
       check what they say.  */
      if (!res_match_path (specs, u->path))
      {
        DEBUGP (("Not following %s because robots.txt forbids it.\n", url));
        string_set_add (blacklist, url);
        goto out;
      }
    }

  /* The URL has passed all the tests.  It can be placed in the
     download queue. */
  DEBUGP (("Decided to load it.\n"));

  return 1;

 out:
  DEBUGP (("Decided NOT to load it.\n"));

  return 0;
}

/* This function determines whether we will consider downloading the
   children of a URL whose download resulted in a redirection,
   possibly to another host, etc.  It is needed very rarely, and thus
   it is merely a simple-minded wrapper around download_child_p.  */

static int
descend_redirect_p (const char *redirected, const char *original, int depth,
                struct url *start_url_parsed, struct hash_table *blacklist)
{
  struct url *orig_parsed, *new_parsed;
  struct urlpos *upos;
  int success;

  orig_parsed = url_parse (original, NULL);
  assert (orig_parsed != NULL);

  new_parsed = url_parse (redirected, NULL);
  assert (new_parsed != NULL);

  upos = xnew0 (struct urlpos);
  upos->url = new_parsed;

  success = download_child_p (upos, orig_parsed, depth,
                        start_url_parsed, blacklist);

  url_free (orig_parsed);
  url_free (new_parsed);
  xfree (upos);

  if (!success)
    DEBUGP (("Redirection \"%s\" failed the test.\n", redirected));

  return success;
}

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